Difference between revisions of "Evil"

From WikEmacs
Jump to: navigation, search
(Lose instead of loose)
 
(20 intermediate revisions by 2 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
 
'''Evil''' is an '''e'''xtensible '''vi''' '''l'''ayer for Emacs. It provides Vim features like Visual selection and text objects, and is the successor to the now defunct vimpulse and vim-mode.
 
'''Evil''' is an '''e'''xtensible '''vi''' '''l'''ayer for Emacs. It provides Vim features like Visual selection and text objects, and is the successor to the now defunct vimpulse and vim-mode.
  
=== Quick install ===
+
= Installation =
  
Using [[el-get]], Evil can be downloaded and installed with: M-x el-get-install RET evil RET.
+
Evil comes prebuilt in emacs24.
 +
In Emacs23, Evil can be downloaded and installed using [[el-get]] with: {{Command|el-get-install RET evil RET}}.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
== Manual install ==
  
=== Download ===
 
  
 
Alternatively, Evil lives in a Git repository. To download Evil, do:
 
Alternatively, Evil lives in a Git repository. To download Evil, do:
Line 11: Line 15:
 
  git clone git://gitorious.org/evil/evil.git
 
  git clone git://gitorious.org/evil/evil.git
  
If you don't have Git, just head over to [https://gitorious.org/evil/evil/commits/master Gitorious] and click the ''"Download master as tar.gz"'' link (extract with ##tar -xzf master.tar.gz##).
+
If you don't have Git, just head over to [https://gitorious.org/evil/evil/commits/master Gitorious] and click the ''"Download master as tar.gz"'' link (extract with tar -xzf master.tar.gz).
  
=== Install ===
+
If you installed it manually, move Evil to {{Filename|~/.emacs.d/evil}} (or somewhere else in your load-path).
 +
In any case, add the following lines to ~/.emacs:
  
Move Evil to ~/.emacs.d/evil (or somewhere else in your ##load-path##). Then add the following lines to ~/.emacs:
+
  (add-to-list 'load-path "~/.emacs.d/evil") ;;no need with 24
 
+
  (add-to-list 'load-path "~/.emacs.d/evil")
+
 
  (require 'evil)
 
  (require 'evil)
 
  (evil-mode 1)
 
  (evil-mode 1)
  
  
Evil requires [UndoTree undo-tree.el] in the load-path for linear undo and undo branches. Otherwise, Evil uses regular Emacs undo.
+
Evil requires [[UndoTree]] in the load-path for linear undo and undo branches. Otherwise, Evil uses regular Emacs undo.
  
=== Documentation ===
+
= Documentation =
  
 
A brief [https://gitorious.org/evil/evil/blobs/raw/doc/doc/evil.pdf PDF manual] is available in the /doc subdirectory.
 
A brief [https://gitorious.org/evil/evil/blobs/raw/doc/doc/evil.pdf PDF manual] is available in the /doc subdirectory.
  
=== Articles ===
+
= Usage =
 +
 
 +
For those not familiar with vim, here's a quick summary of useful commands.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
'''Tip:''': to see a full list of commands available in the current mode, install ''help-fns+'' with [[ELPA]], require it (see its doc). Now you can type '''C-h M-k'''.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
To enter '''insert''' state: try out '''i a o''' and the upper-case ones;
 +
 
 +
To delete chars, words and lines use '''x''', the usual '''d''' followed by a word or a movement ('''$''' is end of line, '''^''' the beginning), '''dd''' and '''D''', or replace an object with '''c''' ;
 +
 
 +
Copy and paste: '''y Y p P''' ;
 +
 
 +
To navigate around the buffer, in normal mode, use '''e E w W b B t T f F ( ) { }''' and '''j k h l - + <RET> <backspace> <space>''';
 +
Go to beginning and end of buffer with '''gg''' and '''G''';
 +
 
 +
Cycle between cursor position: double backquotes, '''C-i''' and '''C-o''';
 +
 
 +
To navigate around the screen, use '''H L M''' to go to the Highest/Lowest/Middle line of the screen;
 +
 
 +
Search forward and backward with '''/''' and '''?''', use '''n''' and '''N''' to go to the next and previous occurence;
 +
 
 +
Go to the next or previous occurence of token under point with '''*''' or '''#''' ;
 +
 
 +
Select a region with '''v''' or '''V''' and re-select the last region selected with '''gv''' ;
 +
 
 +
Go to the '''definition of the symbol''' under point with '''gd''' ;
 +
 
 +
Indent the line or region with '''<''' and '''>''' ;
 +
 
 +
 
 +
Some more:
 +
 
 +
Join lines with '''J'''
 +
 
 +
Set a mark with '''m<char>''', go to a mark with backquote + <char>
 +
 
 +
'''Code folding''' with '''za''' (toggle), '''zc''' (close), '''zm''' and '''zr''' (close and open all)
 +
 
 +
Move the current line at the center, bottom and top of screen: '''zz''', '''zb''' and '''zt''' (C-l with emacs)
 +
 
 +
= Configuration =
 +
 
 +
 
 +
One thing I would recommend to any ex vimmer is to make  escape to quit actually pretty much anything (like pending prompts in the minibuffer):
 +
 
 +
    ;;; esc quits
 +
    (define-key evil-normal-state-map [escape] 'keyboard-quit)
 +
    (define-key evil-visual-state-map [escape] 'keyboard-quit)
 +
    (define-key minibuffer-local-map [escape] 'minibuffer-keyboard-quit)
 +
    (define-key minibuffer-local-ns-map [escape] 'minibuffer-keyboard-quit)
 +
    (define-key minibuffer-local-completion-map [escape] 'minibuffer-keyboard-quit)
 +
    (define-key minibuffer-local-must-match-map [escape] 'minibuffer-keyboard-quit)
 +
    (define-key minibuffer-local-isearch-map [escape] 'minibuffer-keyboard-quit)
 +
 
 +
The following makes you lose vim commands, but gives you back basic emacs commands, like C-y to paste in insert mode or C-r to search backward:
 +
 
 +
    (define-key evil-normal-state-map "\C-y" 'yank)
 +
    (define-key evil-insert-state-map "\C-y" 'yank)
 +
    (define-key evil-visual-state-map "\C-y" 'yank)
 +
    (define-key evil-insert-state-map "\C-e" 'end-of-line)
 +
    (define-key evil-normal-state-map "\C-w" 'evil-delete)
 +
    (define-key evil-insert-state-map "\C-w" 'evil-delete)
 +
    (define-key evil-insert-state-map "\C-r" 'search-backward)
 +
    (define-key evil-visual-state-map "\C-w" 'evil-delete)
 +
 
 +
== Use fine grain undo ==
 +
 
 +
In insert mode, Evil uses linear undo. If you want fine grain undo:
 +
 
 +
    (setq evil-want-fine-undo t)
 +
 
 +
but remember, we shouldn't stay long in insert mode.
 +
 
 +
== Use keychords to go back to normal mode ==
 +
 
 +
If you'd like to type jj or jk in insert mode to go back to normal mode, you may use [[key-chord]]:
 +
 
 +
    (key-chord-define evil-insert-state-map "jj" 'evil-normal-state)
 +
 
 +
== Load config only when we call evil-mode ==
 +
 
 +
I still load evil with M-x, I didn't set (evil-mode 1), so in order to tweak keybindings I had to enclose them in a hook, so that my config is called when evil is called and not at startup:
 +
 
 +
    (add-hook 'evil-after-load-hook
 +
          (lambda ()
 +
          ;; config
 +
    ))
 +
 
 +
== Hooks ==
 +
 
 +
There are some hooks that allow to do things when we enter or exit a mode (see the pdf manual).
 +
 
 +
For example, to save the buffer when we exit the insert mode:
 +
 
 +
    (defun my-save-if-bufferfilename ()
 +
      (if (buffer-file-name)
 +
          (progn
 +
            (save-buffer)
 +
            )
 +
        (message "no file is associated to this buffer: do nothing")
 +
        )
 +
    )
 +
 
 +
    (add-hook 'evil-insert-state-exit-hook 'my-save-if-bufferfilename)
 +
 
 +
== Enter an emacs mode in a given state ==
 +
 
 +
There are some situations where you don't want to be in normal mode by default. For example, it's more useful to be in insert mode when we enter a magit commit buffer, or maybe you prefer to be in emacs mode in a dired buffer.
 +
 
 +
For that purpose, evil provides the '''evil-set-initial-state''' command (see part 2.2 of the pdf documentation) that we can use like that:
 +
 
 +
<source lang="lisp">
 +
(evil-set-initial-state 'git-commit-mode 'insert) ;; enter insert mode to edit a commit message
 +
</source>
 +
 
 +
Here is a handy loop to define more at once:
 +
 
 +
<source lang="lisp">
 +
    (loop for (mode . state) in '((inferior-emacs-lisp-mode . emacs)
 +
                              (nrepl-mode . insert)
 +
                              (pylookup-mode . emacs)
 +
                              (comint-mode . normal)
 +
                              (shell-mode . insert)
 +
                              (git-commit-mode . insert)
 +
                              (git-rebase-mode . emacs)
 +
                              (term-mode . emacs)
 +
                              (help-mode . emacs)
 +
                              (helm-grep-mode . emacs)
 +
                              (grep-mode . emacs)
 +
                              (bc-menu-mode . emacs)
 +
                              (magit-branch-manager-mode . emacs)
 +
                              (rdictcc-buffer-mode . emacs)
 +
                              (dired-mode . emacs)
 +
                              (wdired-mode . normal))
 +
      do (evil-set-initial-state mode state))
 +
</source>
 +
 
 +
= See also =
 +
 
 +
== Articles ==
  
 
* [http://dnquark.com/blog/2012/02/emacs-evil-ecumenicalism/ Emacs Evil Ecumenicalism]
 
* [http://dnquark.com/blog/2012/02/emacs-evil-ecumenicalism/ Emacs Evil Ecumenicalism]
  
=== Plug-ins ===
+
== Plug-ins ==
 +
 
 +
* [[ace-jump]]: Port of Vim's Easy-motion: jump to any character in the buffer with 3 keystrokes.
  
 
* [https://github.com/timcharper/evil-surround evil-surround]: Port of Vim's surround script.
 
* [https://github.com/timcharper/evil-surround evil-surround]: Port of Vim's surround script.
Line 40: Line 186:
 
* [https://github.com/cofi/evil-leader evil-leader]: Port of Vim's mapleader.
 
* [https://github.com/cofi/evil-leader evil-leader]: Port of Vim's mapleader.
  
=== Bug tracker ===
+
== Bug tracker ==
  
 
The bugtrucker can be found on [https://bitbucket.org/lyro/evil/issues?status=new&status=open Bitbucket].
 
The bugtrucker can be found on [https://bitbucket.org/lyro/evil/issues?status=new&status=open Bitbucket].
 
[[Category:Vi User]] [[Category:Vim User]]
 
[[Category:Vi User]] [[Category:Vim User]]

Latest revision as of 10:53, 16 May 2014

Evil is an extensible vi layer for Emacs. It provides Vim features like Visual selection and text objects, and is the successor to the now defunct vimpulse and vim-mode.

Installation[edit]

Evil comes prebuilt in emacs24. In Emacs23, Evil can be downloaded and installed using el-get with: M-x el-get-install RET evil RET.


Manual install[edit]

Alternatively, Evil lives in a Git repository. To download Evil, do:

git clone git://gitorious.org/evil/evil.git

If you don't have Git, just head over to Gitorious and click the "Download master as tar.gz" link (extract with tar -xzf master.tar.gz).

If you installed it manually, move Evil to ~/.emacs.d/evil (or somewhere else in your load-path). In any case, add the following lines to ~/.emacs:

(add-to-list 'load-path "~/.emacs.d/evil") ;;no need with 24
(require 'evil)
(evil-mode 1)


Evil requires UndoTree in the load-path for linear undo and undo branches. Otherwise, Evil uses regular Emacs undo.

Documentation[edit]

A brief PDF manual is available in the /doc subdirectory.

Usage[edit]

For those not familiar with vim, here's a quick summary of useful commands.


Tip:: to see a full list of commands available in the current mode, install help-fns+ with ELPA, require it (see its doc). Now you can type C-h M-k.


To enter insert state: try out i a o and the upper-case ones;

To delete chars, words and lines use x, the usual d followed by a word or a movement ($ is end of line, ^ the beginning), dd and D, or replace an object with c ;

Copy and paste: y Y p P ;

To navigate around the buffer, in normal mode, use e E w W b B t T f F ( ) { } and j k h l - + <RET> <backspace> <space>; Go to beginning and end of buffer with gg and G;

Cycle between cursor position: double backquotes, C-i and C-o;

To navigate around the screen, use H L M to go to the Highest/Lowest/Middle line of the screen;

Search forward and backward with / and ?, use n and N to go to the next and previous occurence;

Go to the next or previous occurence of token under point with * or # ;

Select a region with v or V and re-select the last region selected with gv ;

Go to the definition of the symbol under point with gd ;

Indent the line or region with < and > ;


Some more:

Join lines with J

Set a mark with m<char>, go to a mark with backquote + <char>

Code folding with za (toggle), zc (close), zm and zr (close and open all)

Move the current line at the center, bottom and top of screen: zz, zb and zt (C-l with emacs)

Configuration[edit]

One thing I would recommend to any ex vimmer is to make escape to quit actually pretty much anything (like pending prompts in the minibuffer):

   ;;; esc quits
   (define-key evil-normal-state-map [escape] 'keyboard-quit)
   (define-key evil-visual-state-map [escape] 'keyboard-quit)
   (define-key minibuffer-local-map [escape] 'minibuffer-keyboard-quit)
   (define-key minibuffer-local-ns-map [escape] 'minibuffer-keyboard-quit)
   (define-key minibuffer-local-completion-map [escape] 'minibuffer-keyboard-quit)
   (define-key minibuffer-local-must-match-map [escape] 'minibuffer-keyboard-quit)
   (define-key minibuffer-local-isearch-map [escape] 'minibuffer-keyboard-quit)

The following makes you lose vim commands, but gives you back basic emacs commands, like C-y to paste in insert mode or C-r to search backward:

   (define-key evil-normal-state-map "\C-y" 'yank)
   (define-key evil-insert-state-map "\C-y" 'yank)
   (define-key evil-visual-state-map "\C-y" 'yank)
   (define-key evil-insert-state-map "\C-e" 'end-of-line)
   (define-key evil-normal-state-map "\C-w" 'evil-delete)
   (define-key evil-insert-state-map "\C-w" 'evil-delete)
   (define-key evil-insert-state-map "\C-r" 'search-backward)
   (define-key evil-visual-state-map "\C-w" 'evil-delete)

Use fine grain undo[edit]

In insert mode, Evil uses linear undo. If you want fine grain undo:

   (setq evil-want-fine-undo t)

but remember, we shouldn't stay long in insert mode.

Use keychords to go back to normal mode[edit]

If you'd like to type jj or jk in insert mode to go back to normal mode, you may use key-chord:

   (key-chord-define evil-insert-state-map "jj" 'evil-normal-state)

Load config only when we call evil-mode[edit]

I still load evil with M-x, I didn't set (evil-mode 1), so in order to tweak keybindings I had to enclose them in a hook, so that my config is called when evil is called and not at startup:

   (add-hook 'evil-after-load-hook
         (lambda ()
         ;; config
    ))

Hooks[edit]

There are some hooks that allow to do things when we enter or exit a mode (see the pdf manual).

For example, to save the buffer when we exit the insert mode:

   (defun my-save-if-bufferfilename ()
     (if (buffer-file-name)
         (progn
           (save-buffer)
           )
       (message "no file is associated to this buffer: do nothing")
       )
   )
   (add-hook 'evil-insert-state-exit-hook 'my-save-if-bufferfilename)

Enter an emacs mode in a given state[edit]

There are some situations where you don't want to be in normal mode by default. For example, it's more useful to be in insert mode when we enter a magit commit buffer, or maybe you prefer to be in emacs mode in a dired buffer.

For that purpose, evil provides the evil-set-initial-state command (see part 2.2 of the pdf documentation) that we can use like that:

(evil-set-initial-state 'git-commit-mode 'insert) ;; enter insert mode to edit a commit message

Here is a handy loop to define more at once:

    (loop for (mode . state) in '((inferior-emacs-lisp-mode . emacs)
                              (nrepl-mode . insert)
                              (pylookup-mode . emacs)
                              (comint-mode . normal)
                              (shell-mode . insert)
                              (git-commit-mode . insert)
                              (git-rebase-mode . emacs)
                              (term-mode . emacs)
                              (help-mode . emacs)
                              (helm-grep-mode . emacs)
                              (grep-mode . emacs)
                              (bc-menu-mode . emacs)
                              (magit-branch-manager-mode . emacs)
                              (rdictcc-buffer-mode . emacs)
                              (dired-mode . emacs)
                              (wdired-mode . normal))
      do (evil-set-initial-state mode state))

See also[edit]

Articles[edit]

Plug-ins[edit]

  • ace-jump: Port of Vim's Easy-motion: jump to any character in the buffer with 3 keystrokes.

Bug tracker[edit]

The bugtrucker can be found on Bitbucket.