Difference between revisions of "Python"

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= Auto-Completion =
+
= Refactoring =
  
 
== rope & ropemacs ==
 
== rope & ropemacs ==
  
'''rope''' is a library for refactoring and manipulating Python code. '''{{ModeLink|ropemacs}}''' is an Emacs interface to the rope library.
+
=== Presentation ===
  
[http://rope.sourceforge.net/ rope homepage]
+
'''rope''' is a library for refactoring and manipulating Python code, '''pymacs''' is an interface between emacs lisp and python, and '''{{ModeLink|ropemacs}}''' is an Emacs interface to the rope library which uses rope and pymacs.
 +
 
 +
If you do some search and replace of code objects in your code and find it sometimes tricky, and/or you need to do it in more than one file, then you should consider a good tool of refactoring.
 +
 
 +
But Rope can do more than this simple example, it can:
 +
 
 +
* Rename anything
 +
* Extract method/local variable
 +
* Change method signature
 +
* Perform cross-project refactorings
 +
* Support Mercurial, GIT, Darcs and SVN in refactorings
 +
 
 +
Rope can also help IDE's with:
 +
 
 +
* Auto-completion
 +
* Finding definition location
 +
* Getting pydoc
 +
* Finding occurrences
 +
* Organizing imports (removing unused and duplicate imports and sorting them)
 +
* Generating python elements
 +
 
 +
=== Installation ===
 +
 
 +
==== With el-get ====
 +
 
 +
So an easy way is to use an [[el-get]] recipe: '''M-x el-get-install ropemacs'''. It installs and build Pymacs, rope and ropemacs. The difference from the solution using pip is that it setups the Emacs side of Pymacs correctly.
 +
 
 +
==== Manually ====
 +
 
 +
You can follow the instructions as given [http://stackoverflow.com/a/22496541/4018217 here] ,if you don't want to use marmalade you can use the following instructions .
 +
 
 +
    sudo pip install rope ropemacs
 +
 
 +
As of February 2014 you can't install Pymacs via pip, therefore:
 +
 
 +
    git clone http://github.com/pinard/pymacs
 +
    cd pymacs
 +
    make check
 +
    sudo make install
 +
 
 +
make check ensures the prerequisites. sudo make install puts Pymacs module in Python local modules path, usually /usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/. People generally frown upon make install, because if you lose the Makefile, it can become hard to cleanly uninstall. But you shouldn't fear it, as pip uses the same directory, so pip uninstall pymacs will work.
 +
 
 +
'''After you do the make install of pymacs do not delete the folder.Copy the file pymacs.el to ~/.emacs.d/site-lisp/'''
 +
 
 +
Now add path of pyamcs.el to your ~/.emacs file,using this code:
 +
    (setq emacs-config-path "~/.emacs.d/")
 +
    (setq base-lisp-path "~/.emacs.d/site-lisp/")
 +
    (setq site-lisp-path (concat emacs-config-path "/site-lisp"))
 +
    (defun add-path (p)
 +
      (add-to-list 'load-path (concat base-lisp-path p)))
 +
    (add-path "")
 +
    (add-to-list 'load-path "~/.emacs.d")
 +
 
 +
You can now lazily load ropemacs or load it at runtime.For lazy evaluation add this to your .emacs file:
 +
    (defun load-ropemacs ()
 +
      "Load pymacs and ropemacs"
 +
      (interactive)
 +
      (require 'pymacs)
 +
      (pymacs-load "ropemacs" "rope-")
 +
      ;; Automatically save project python buffers before refactorings
 +
      (setq ropemacs-confirm-saving 'nil)
 +
    )
 +
    (global-set-key "\C-xpl" 'load-ropemacs)
 +
 
 +
use c-xpl to load ropemacs.Read more about it [https://github.com/python-rope/ropemacs#setting-up here]
 +
 
 +
= Auto-Completion =
  
[http://rope.sourceforge.net/ropemacs.html ropemacs homepage]
 
  
 
== Jedi ==
 
== Jedi ==
Line 33: Line 98:
 
Jedi.el is a Python auto-completion package for Emacs. It aims at helping your Python coding in a non-destructive way. It also helps you to find information about Python objects, such as docstring, function arguments and code location.
 
Jedi.el is a Python auto-completion package for Emacs. It aims at helping your Python coding in a non-destructive way. It also helps you to find information about Python objects, such as docstring, function arguments and code location.
  
Jedi is simple to install and it just works.
+
Jedi is simple to install and it works out of the box.
  
 
See screenshots and get the full documentation : http://tkf.github.io/emacs-jedi/released/
 
See screenshots and get the full documentation : http://tkf.github.io/emacs-jedi/released/
Line 47: Line 112:
  
 
or call M-x jedi:setup
 
or call M-x jedi:setup
 +
 +
''Note'': it's nice to use it in a python interpreter inside emacs :)
 +
 +
== Anaconda ==
 +
 +
'''Anaconda-mode''' is a mode for '''code navigation, documentation lookup''' and '''completion''' for Python.
 +
 +
It runs on '''emacs 24.3''' with python >= 2.6.
 +
 +
It provides:
 +
 +
* context-sensitive code completion for Python
 +
* jump to definition
 +
* find references
 +
* view documentation
 +
* virtualenv management
 +
 +
The package is available in [[MELPA]]. For more information, [https://github.com/proofit404/anaconda-mode read its documentation].
  
 
= Code Checker =
 
= Code Checker =
Line 59: Line 142:
 
Don't forget about '''pylint''' too.
 
Don't forget about '''pylint''' too.
  
= Other tools =
+
= Indexing sources: ctags, cscope, pycscope =  
  
== Pymacs ==
+
Indexing sources allows you to do neat things, like going to the definition of a function or finding which functions are calling another one.
  
'''{{ModeLink|Pymacs}}''' is an Emacs extension that enables the use of Python alongside with Emacs Lisp.
+
== etags, ctags ==
  
[http://pymacs.progiciels-bpi.ca/index.html Pymacs homepage]
+
'''Etags''' (Exuberant Ctags) generates an index (or tag) file of language objects found in source files that allows these items to be quickly and easily located by a text editor or other utility. A tag signifies a language object for which an index entry is available (or, alternatively, the index entry created for that object). Etags is a multilingual implementation of '''ctags'''.
 +
 
 +
The primary use for the tags files is looking up class/method/function/constant/etc declaration/definitions. Cscope is more powerful (see below).
 +
 
 +
=== usage ===
 +
 
 +
Generate the tags with this command at the root of your project:
 +
 
 +
    find . -name "*.py" -print | etags -
 +
 
 +
it creates the file TAGS.
 +
 
 +
Note that projects like [[Projectile]] or [[Helm]] provide an integrated use of etags (finding one, re-generating the index, etc).
 +
 
 +
== cscope ==
 +
 
 +
'''cscope''' is a much more powerful beast. While it operates on more or less the same principle (generating a file of useful metadata) it allows you do some fancier things like find all references to a symbol, see where a function is being invoked, etc.+ (you can find definitions as well).
 +
 
 +
It was originally designed for C and C++, but thanks to version 0.3 of '''pycscope''', pythonistas can make use of it.
 +
 
 +
=== usage ===
 +
 
 +
The following commands should get you running:
 +
 
 +
    apt-get install cscope
 +
    pip install pycscope
 +
    # in project base dir:
 +
    find . -name '*.py' > cscope.files
 +
    cscope -R
 +
 
 +
now install the '''xcscope''' emacs package with [[ELPA]] and require it:
 +
    (require 'xcscope)
 +
 
 +
When done, you can either enable the mode with '''cscope-minor-mode''' (which will add a menu you are free to explore) or call some functions like {{Command|cscope-find-global-definition}}, {{Command|cscope-find-functions-calling-this-function}}, etc.
 +
 
 +
=== Interactivity with helm-cscope ===
  
 +
You can do all that interactively with [https://github.com/sergey-pashaev/helm-cscope helm-cscope]: when you are on symbol, just call {{Command|helm-cscope-find-global-definition}} (for example) and enjoy the nice interactive interface.
  
 
= Debugging =
 
= Debugging =
Line 92: Line 211:
 
A tool to use in a non-emacs terminal would be [https://pypi.python.org/pypi/pdbpp/ pdbpp]
 
A tool to use in a non-emacs terminal would be [https://pypi.python.org/pypi/pdbpp/ pdbpp]
  
 +
= Other tools =
  
 +
== Virtual environments ==
 +
 +
Some tools allow to apply the changes of virtual environment activation inside emacs. They make '''M-x compile''' aware of the environment, etc.
 +
 +
* [https://github.com/porterjamesj/virtualenvwrapper.el virtualenvwrapper] emulates much of the functionnality of '''virtualenvwrapper''', integrates well with '''M-x shell''' or '''eshell''', is aware of hooks, has an automatic activation by project and integrates in the mode line.
 +
 +
* [https://github.com/jorgenschaefer/pyvenv pyvenv] sets the python path, uses virtualwrapper's hooks, ...
 +
 +
== Pymacs ==
 +
 +
'''{{ModeLink|Pymacs}}''' is an Emacs extension that enables the use of Python alongside with Emacs Lisp.
 +
 +
[http://pymacs.progiciels-bpi.ca/index.html Pymacs homepage]
 +
 +
== Auto include import statements ==
 +
 +
[[Ropemacs]] (see above) is a plugin for performing python refactorings in emacs. It uses rope library and pymacs. It has '''rope-auto-import''', so if you write
 +
 +
    rmtree
 +
 +
and then execute {{Command|rope-auto-import}},
 +
 +
    from shutil import rmtree
 +
 +
is inserted at the top of the file.
 +
 +
Unfortunately Ropemacs can not do non-relative imports, it can only create imports of the "from X import Y" variety (if you type ''shutil.rmtree'' it doesn't write ''import shutil'').
 +
 +
== Sort import statements ==
 +
 +
See the '''py-isort''' [[Melpa]] package to automatically sort import statements.
  
 
= See also =
 
= See also =
  
You'll be certainly interested in :
+
You'll be certainly interested in the following packages (that you will find on [[ELPA]] or MELPA):
  
 
* '''Magit''', a git interface. Emacs + git is magic : see [[magit]]
 
* '''Magit''', a git interface. Emacs + git is magic : see [[magit]]
Line 102: Line 253:
 
* '''Yasnippet''', a template system: [[yasnippet]]
 
* '''Yasnippet''', a template system: [[yasnippet]]
  
* '''virtualenvwrapper''', to load a virtualenv (so than you can use it with M-x compile) (available through ELPA)
+
* '''helm-pydoc''' to browse the documentation of installed packages and import one
 +
 
 +
* '''pungi''' to integrate jedi, virtualenv and buildout.
  
* '''ELPA packages'''
+
* other '''ELPA packages'''
  
 
If you're running Emacs 24, check out what is available in [[ELPA]]:
 
If you're running Emacs 24, check out what is available in [[ELPA]]:
; {{Command | list-packages}}  :  and see flymake-pyhon-pyflakes, flymake-shell, virtualenv, abl-mode (a python TDD minor-mode), jedi (a python auto-completion for emacs), nose (easy python test-running in emacs), pyregexp, python-magic and more.
+
; {{Command | list-packages}}  :  and see flymake-pyhon-pyflakes, flymake-shell, abl-mode (a python TDD minor-mode), nose (easy python test-running in emacs), pyregexp, python-magic and more.
  
 
[[Category:Programming languages]]
 
[[Category:Programming languages]]
 
[[Category:Programming]]
 
[[Category:Programming]]

Latest revision as of 08:57, 26 November 2014

Default modes[edit]

There are a number of python modes for Emacs. fgallina's python.el is the python.el included in Emacs 24.2 and onwards.

All-in-one solutions[edit]

emacs-for-python[edit]

emacs-for-python is a bundle of the above modes (and more), and it's an easy way to turn Emacs into a Python IDE.

emacs-for-python at github

Elpy[edit]

Elpy is a collection of elisp packages for Python too.

https://github.com/jorgenschaefer/elpy/wiki/Features


Refactoring[edit]

rope & ropemacs[edit]

Presentation[edit]

rope is a library for refactoring and manipulating Python code, pymacs is an interface between emacs lisp and python, and ropemacs is an Emacs interface to the rope library which uses rope and pymacs.

If you do some search and replace of code objects in your code and find it sometimes tricky, and/or you need to do it in more than one file, then you should consider a good tool of refactoring.

But Rope can do more than this simple example, it can:

  • Rename anything
  • Extract method/local variable
  • Change method signature
  • Perform cross-project refactorings
  • Support Mercurial, GIT, Darcs and SVN in refactorings

Rope can also help IDE's with:

  • Auto-completion
  • Finding definition location
  • Getting pydoc
  • Finding occurrences
  • Organizing imports (removing unused and duplicate imports and sorting them)
  • Generating python elements

Installation[edit]

With el-get[edit]

So an easy way is to use an el-get recipe: M-x el-get-install ropemacs. It installs and build Pymacs, rope and ropemacs. The difference from the solution using pip is that it setups the Emacs side of Pymacs correctly.

Manually[edit]

You can follow the instructions as given here ,if you don't want to use marmalade you can use the following instructions .

   sudo pip install rope ropemacs

As of February 2014 you can't install Pymacs via pip, therefore:

   git clone http://github.com/pinard/pymacs
   cd pymacs
   make check
   sudo make install

make check ensures the prerequisites. sudo make install puts Pymacs module in Python local modules path, usually /usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/. People generally frown upon make install, because if you lose the Makefile, it can become hard to cleanly uninstall. But you shouldn't fear it, as pip uses the same directory, so pip uninstall pymacs will work.

After you do the make install of pymacs do not delete the folder.Copy the file pymacs.el to ~/.emacs.d/site-lisp/

Now add path of pyamcs.el to your ~/.emacs file,using this code:

   (setq emacs-config-path "~/.emacs.d/") 
   (setq base-lisp-path "~/.emacs.d/site-lisp/")
   (setq site-lisp-path (concat emacs-config-path "/site-lisp"))
   (defun add-path (p)
     (add-to-list 'load-path (concat base-lisp-path p)))
   (add-path "")
   (add-to-list 'load-path "~/.emacs.d")

You can now lazily load ropemacs or load it at runtime.For lazy evaluation add this to your .emacs file:

   (defun load-ropemacs ()
     "Load pymacs and ropemacs"
     (interactive)
     (require 'pymacs)
     (pymacs-load "ropemacs" "rope-")
     ;; Automatically save project python buffers before refactorings
     (setq ropemacs-confirm-saving 'nil)
   )
   (global-set-key "\C-xpl" 'load-ropemacs)

use c-xpl to load ropemacs.Read more about it here

Auto-Completion[edit]

Jedi[edit]

Jedi.el is a Python auto-completion package for Emacs. It aims at helping your Python coding in a non-destructive way. It also helps you to find information about Python objects, such as docstring, function arguments and code location.

Jedi is simple to install and it works out of the box.

See screenshots and get the full documentation : http://tkf.github.io/emacs-jedi/released/

Jedi's official page: http://jedi.jedidjah.ch/en/latest/

Installation[edit]

Install Jedi.el via el-get, Marmalade or MELPA (see install for more info) and add this to your Emacs configuration:

   (add-hook 'python-mode-hook 'jedi:setup)
   (setq jedi:setup-keys t)                      ; optional
   (setq jedi:complete-on-dot t)                 ; optional

or call M-x jedi:setup

Note: it's nice to use it in a python interpreter inside emacs :)

Anaconda[edit]

Anaconda-mode is a mode for code navigation, documentation lookup and completion for Python.

It runs on emacs 24.3 with python >= 2.6.

It provides:

  • context-sensitive code completion for Python
  • jump to definition
  • find references
  • view documentation
  • virtualenv management

The package is available in MELPA. For more information, read its documentation.

Code Checker[edit]

Flymake[edit]

flymake is a on-the-fly syntax checker for Emacs. We can use it alongside with flyspell.

To run pep8, pylint, pyflakes and unit-tests (with nose), you can be interested in using flymake-python.

Don't forget about pylint too.

Indexing sources: ctags, cscope, pycscope[edit]

Indexing sources allows you to do neat things, like going to the definition of a function or finding which functions are calling another one.

etags, ctags[edit]

Etags (Exuberant Ctags) generates an index (or tag) file of language objects found in source files that allows these items to be quickly and easily located by a text editor or other utility. A tag signifies a language object for which an index entry is available (or, alternatively, the index entry created for that object). Etags is a multilingual implementation of ctags.

The primary use for the tags files is looking up class/method/function/constant/etc declaration/definitions. Cscope is more powerful (see below).

usage[edit]

Generate the tags with this command at the root of your project:

    find . -name "*.py" -print | etags -

it creates the file TAGS.

Note that projects like Projectile or Helm provide an integrated use of etags (finding one, re-generating the index, etc).

cscope[edit]

cscope is a much more powerful beast. While it operates on more or less the same principle (generating a file of useful metadata) it allows you do some fancier things like find all references to a symbol, see where a function is being invoked, etc.+ (you can find definitions as well).

It was originally designed for C and C++, but thanks to version 0.3 of pycscope, pythonistas can make use of it.

usage[edit]

The following commands should get you running:

   apt-get install cscope
   pip install pycscope
   # in project base dir:
   find . -name '*.py' > cscope.files
   cscope -R 

now install the xcscope emacs package with ELPA and require it:

   (require 'xcscope)

When done, you can either enable the mode with cscope-minor-mode (which will add a menu you are free to explore) or call some functions like M-x cscope-find-global-definition, M-x cscope-find-functions-calling-this-function, etc.

Interactivity with helm-cscope[edit]

You can do all that interactively with helm-cscope: when you are on symbol, just call M-x helm-cscope-find-global-definition (for example) and enjoy the nice interactive interface.

Debugging[edit]

Ipdb, ipython debugger[edit]

If you call ipdb, the execution will stop and give a nice ipython-looking prompt. Just add `import ipdb; ipdb.set_trace()`

You can use the following to highlight this line, and not forget it :

; Highlight the call to ipdb
; src http://pedrokroger.com/2010/07/configuring-emacs-as-a-python-ide-2/
(defun annotate-pdb ()
  (interactive)
  (highlight-lines-matching-regexp "import ipdb")
  (highlight-lines-matching-regexp "ipdb.set_trace()"))
(add-hook 'python-mode-hook 'annotate-pdb)

pdb track[edit]

If you use emacs-for-python given above, you can track your source code while debugging with pdbtrack.

A tool to use in a non-emacs terminal would be pdbpp

Other tools[edit]

Virtual environments[edit]

Some tools allow to apply the changes of virtual environment activation inside emacs. They make M-x compile aware of the environment, etc.

  • virtualenvwrapper emulates much of the functionnality of virtualenvwrapper, integrates well with M-x shell or eshell, is aware of hooks, has an automatic activation by project and integrates in the mode line.
  • pyvenv sets the python path, uses virtualwrapper's hooks, ...

Pymacs[edit]

Pymacs is an Emacs extension that enables the use of Python alongside with Emacs Lisp.

Pymacs homepage

Auto include import statements[edit]

Ropemacs (see above) is a plugin for performing python refactorings in emacs. It uses rope library and pymacs. It has rope-auto-import, so if you write

   rmtree

and then execute M-x rope-auto-import,

   from shutil import rmtree

is inserted at the top of the file.

Unfortunately Ropemacs can not do non-relative imports, it can only create imports of the "from X import Y" variety (if you type shutil.rmtree it doesn't write import shutil).

Sort import statements[edit]

See the py-isort Melpa package to automatically sort import statements.

See also[edit]

You'll be certainly interested in the following packages (that you will find on ELPA or MELPA):

  • Magit, a git interface. Emacs + git is magic : see magit
  • helm-pydoc to browse the documentation of installed packages and import one
  • pungi to integrate jedi, virtualenv and buildout.
  • other ELPA packages

If you're running Emacs 24, check out what is available in ELPA:

M-x list-packages  
and see flymake-pyhon-pyflakes, flymake-shell, abl-mode (a python TDD minor-mode), nose (easy python test-running in emacs), pyregexp, python-magic and more.