Difference between revisions of "Quick Tutorial"

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(templates keys, still need lot of them,( Note to the author: Please feel free to revert this))
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; C : Control key
 
; C : Control key
 
; S : Shift key
 
; S : Shift key
; M-a : Press '''a''' while holding the meta key
+
; {{Keys|M-a}} : Press '''a''' while holding the meta key
; C-M-a : Press '''a''' while holding the control and meta keys
+
; {{Keys|C-M-a}} : Press '''a''' while holding the control and meta keys
; C-a b : Press '''a''' while holding the control key then press '''b'''
+
; {{Keys|C-a b}} : Press '''a''' while holding the control key then press '''b'''
; C-a C-b : Press '''a''' and '''b''' both while holding the control key
+
; {{Keys|C-a C-b}} : Press '''a''' and '''b''' both while holding the control key
; C-a M-b : Press '''a''' with control then '''b''' with meta
+
; {{Keys|C-a M-b}} : Press '''a''' with control then '''b''' with meta
  
 
The Minibuffer is used to input commands, arguments and setting different modes (which some of are bound to keys or menu actions).
 
The Minibuffer is used to input commands, arguments and setting different modes (which some of are bound to keys or menu actions).
  
; M-x : Execute a command by name
+
; {{Keys|M-x}} : Execute a command by name
  
 
== Basic Usage ==
 
== Basic Usage ==
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; <pre>$ emacs # opens Emacs at the scratch buffer</pre>
 
; <pre>$ emacs # opens Emacs at the scratch buffer</pre>
 
; <pre>$ emacs [file1] [file2] ... # opens Emacs in split-window mode</pre>
 
; <pre>$ emacs [file1] [file2] ... # opens Emacs in split-window mode</pre>
; C-x C-f ''filename'' : loads a new buffer from ''filename''
+
; {{Keys|C-x C-f}} ''filename'' : loads a new buffer from ''filename''
  
 
=== Saving ===
 
=== Saving ===
  
; C-x C-s : saves the current buffer
+
; {{Keys|C-x C-s}} : saves the current buffer
; C-x C-w ''filename'' : saves the current buffer as ''filename''
+
; {{Keys|C-x C-w}} ''filename'' : saves the current buffer as ''filename''
  
 
=== Other ===
 
=== Other ===
  
; C-x C-c : quits emacs
+
; {{Keys|C-x C-c}} : quits emacs
; C-g C-g : cancels key-sequence
+
; {{Keys|C-g C-g}} : cancels key-sequence
  
 
== Windows ==
 
== Windows ==
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Windows are used to display buffer contents. Windows can be split and resized inside an Emacs frame. The minibuffer has its own window.
 
Windows are used to display buffer contents. Windows can be split and resized inside an Emacs frame. The minibuffer has its own window.
  
* C-x 2 : open a window vertically
+
* {{Keys|C-x 2}} : open a window vertically
* C-x 3 : open a window horizontally
+
* {{Keys|C-x 3}} : open a window horizontally
* C-x 0 : close the current window
+
* {{Keys|C-x 0}} : close the current window
* C-x 1 : close all other windows
+
* {{Keys|C-x 1}} : close all other windows
 
* ESC ESC ESC : close all other windows
 
* ESC ESC ESC : close all other windows
* C-x o : move to another window
+
* {{Keys|C-x o}} : move to another window
* C-x ^ : increase window size vertically
+
* {{Keys|C-x ^}} : increase window size vertically
* C-x } : increase window size horizontally
+
* {{Keys|C-x }}} : increase window size horizontally
* C-x { : decrease window size horizontally
+
* {{Keys|C-x {}} : decrease window size horizontally
 
* C-x <math>-</math> : shrink window to buffer size
 
* C-x <math>-</math> : shrink window to buffer size
 
* C-x <math>+</math> : make all windows equal in size
 
* C-x <math>+</math> : make all windows equal in size
Line 122: Line 122:
 
Line
 
Line
  
* C-a : goes to beginning of the line (Home)
+
* {{Keys|C-a}} : goes to beginning of the line (Home)
* C-e : goes to end of the line (End)
+
* {{Keys|C-e}} : goes to end of the line (End)
* M-a : goes to beginning of the sentence
+
* {{Keys|M-a}} : goes to beginning of the sentence
* M-e : goes to end of the sentence
+
* {{Keys|M-e}} : goes to end of the sentence
* M-g g : goes to given line by number
+
* {{Keys|M-g g}} : goes to given line by number
  
 
Paragraph
 
Paragraph
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Buffer
 
Buffer
  
* C-x [ : moves to the beginning of the buffer
+
* {{Keys|C-x [}} : moves to the beginning of the buffer
* C-x ] : moves to the end of the buffer
+
* {{Keys|C-x ]}} : moves to the end of the buffer
 
* C-l : moves the buffer to position point
 
* C-l : moves the buffer to position point
* C-x b : switches to another buffer by name
+
* {{Keys|C-x b}} : switches to another buffer by name
 
* C-x : switches to previous or next buffer
 
* C-x : switches to previous or next buffer
* C-x k : kills the current buffer
+
* {{Keys|C-x k}} : kills the current buffer
  
 
== Editing ==
 
== Editing ==
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Character
 
Character
  
* C-d : deletes next character
+
* {{Keys|C-d}} : deletes next character
* C-t : transposes current character with previous one
+
* {{Keys|C-t}} : transposes current character with previous one
 
* C-q TAB : inserts a TAB verbatim
 
* C-q TAB : inserts a TAB verbatim
  
 
Word
 
Word
  
* M-d : kills the next word
+
* {{Keys|M-d}} : kills the next word
* M-- M-d : kills to the previous word
+
* {{Keys|M-- M-d}} : kills to the previous word
* M-/ : expands current word
+
* {{Keys|M-/}} : expands current word
 
* M-/ SPC M-/expands current word and grabs next one
 
* M-/ SPC M-/expands current word and grabs next one
* M-C-/ : completes current word
+
* {{Keys|M-C-/}} : completes current word
* M-t : transposes current word with next one
+
* {{Keys|M-t}} : transposes current word with next one
* M-- M-t : transposes current word with previous one
+
* {{Keys|M-- M-t}} : transposes current word with previous one
* M-c : capitalizes next word
+
* {{Keys|M-c}} : capitalizes next word
* M-- M-c : capitalizes previous word
+
* {{Keys|M-- M-c}} : capitalizes previous word
* M-l : lowercase next word
+
* {{Keys|M-l}} : lowercase next word
* M-- M-l : lowercase previous word
+
* {{Keys|M-- M-l}} : lowercase previous word
* M-u : uppercase next word
+
* {{Keys|M-u}} : uppercase next word
* M-- M-uuppercase previous word
+
* {{Keys|M-- M-u}} uppercase previous word
  
 
Line
 
Line
  
* M-o M-s : center a line
+
* {{Keys|M-o M-s}} : center a line
 
* C-S-BACKSPC : kills current line
 
* C-S-BACKSPC : kills current line
* C-k : kills from point to EOL
+
* {{Keys|C-k}} : kills from point to EOL
* M-- C-k : kills to the previous line
+
* {{Keys|M-u C-k}} : kills to the previous line
* C-a C-k : goes to BOL then kills to EOL
+
* {{Keys|C-a C-k}} : goes to BOL then kills to EOL
 
* TAB : indents line depending on current mode
 
* TAB : indents line depending on current mode
* C-o : breaks line before/after point
+
* {{Keys|C-o}} : breaks line before/after point
* C-x C-t : transpose current line with previous one
+
* {{Keys|C-x C-t}} : transpose current line with previous one
* M-0 C-x C-t : transpose current line with one at mark
+
* {{Keys|M-0 C-x}} C-t : transpose current line with one at mark
 
* delete-matching-lines : delete lines matching a regexp
 
* delete-matching-lines : delete lines matching a regexp
  
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* M-''n'' ''com''run ''com'' with prefix arg ''n''
 
* M-''n'' ''com''run ''com'' with prefix arg ''n''
* M-- ''com''run ''com'' with negative prefix arg
+
* {{Keys|M--}} ''com''run ''com'' with negative prefix arg
* C-u ''n'' ''com''run ''com'' with prefix arg ''n''
+
* {{Keys|C-u}} ''n'' ''com''run ''com'' with prefix arg ''n''
* C-u ''com''run ''com'' with prefix arg 4
+
* {{Keys|C-u}} ''com''run ''com'' with prefix arg 4
* C-u C-u ''com''run ''com'' with prefix arg 8
+
* {{Keys|C-u C-u}} ''com''run ''com'' with prefix arg 8
* C-ualso terminates the prefix argument
+
* {{Keys|C-u}} also terminates the prefix argument
 
* C-x [z]+repeats the previous <math>z^{th}</math> command with args
 
* C-x [z]+repeats the previous <math>z^{th}</math> command with args
 
* C-x ESC ESCrepeats last command that uses the minibuffer
 
* C-x ESC ESCrepeats last command that uses the minibuffer
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Incremental search
 
Incremental search
  
* C-s <math>keyword</math>search forward
+
* {{Keys|C-s}} <math>keyword</math>search forward
* C-r <math>keyword</math>search backward
+
* {{Keys|C-r}} <math>keyword</math>search backward
  
 
Non-incremental search
 
Non-incremental search
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Regular Expression Search
 
Regular Expression Search
  
* C-M-s <math>expression</math>search regexp forward
+
* {{Keys|C-M-s}} <math>expression</math>search regexp forward
* C-M-r <math>expression</math>search regexp backward
+
* {{Keys|C-M-r}} <math>expression</math>search regexp backward
  
 
Notes:
 
Notes:
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* ESC will cancel and go to original point. RET will end at the current point.
 
* ESC will cancel and go to original point. RET will end at the current point.
 
* Searches are case-insensitive unless an uppercase letter is found in the search string.
 
* Searches are case-insensitive unless an uppercase letter is found in the search string.
* While searching, C-w will increment the search term with the current word.
+
* While searching, {{Keys|C-w}} will increment the search term with the current word.
  
 
Unconditional Replace
 
Unconditional Replace
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Query Replace (Conditional Replace)
 
Query Replace (Conditional Replace)
  
* M-%conditional replace of a string
+
* {{Keys|M-%}} conditional replace of a string
 
* query-replace-regexpconditional replace of a regexp
 
* query-replace-regexpconditional replace of a regexp
  
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In Emacs, there is no special redo function. Instead, there is only an undo function and redo can be achieved by undo-ing an undo.
 
In Emacs, there is no special redo function. Instead, there is only an undo function and redo can be achieved by undo-ing an undo.
  
* C-/undo a single change
+
* {{Keys|C-/}} undo a single change
* C-gbreak the chain of undos
+
* {{Keys|C-g}} break the chain of undos
  
 
Notes:
 
Notes:
Line 253: Line 253:
  
 
* C-SPC creates a region (marks area)
 
* C-SPC creates a region (marks area)
* C-x C-xswaps mark and point in a region
+
* {{Keys|C-x C-x}} swaps mark and point in a region
* C-u C-x C-xswaps mark and point without region
+
* {{Keys|C-u C-x C-x}} swaps mark and point without region
* C-x hmarks the entire document
+
* {{Keys|C-x h}} marks the entire document
* M-hmarks the paragraph around
+
* {{Keys|M-h}} marks the paragraph around
 
* TABindents the current region
 
* TABindents the current region
* M-@incrementally mark next word
+
* {{Keys|M-@}} incrementally mark next word
  
 
Kill, Yank and Paste Regions
 
Kill, Yank and Paste Regions
  
* C-wkills the currently selected region
+
* {{Keys|C-w}} kills the currently selected region
* M-wcopies the currently selected region
+
* {{Keys|M-w}} copies the currently selected region
* C-y (M-y)*yanks and cycles from the kill ring
+
* {{Keys|C-y}} ({{Keys|M-y}})*yanks and cycles from the kill ring
  
 
Notes:
 
Notes:
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Rectangles are marked regions between the columns of the point and mark. Applying operations on rectangles is some sort of vertical editing.
 
Rectangles are marked regions between the columns of the point and mark. Applying operations on rectangles is some sort of vertical editing.
  
* C-x r kkill the rectangle
+
* {{Keys|C-x r k}} kill the rectangle
* C-x r ddelete the rectangle
+
* {{Keys|C-x r d}} delete the rectangle
* C-x r yyank the last killed rectangle
+
* {{Keys|C-x r y}} yank the last killed rectangle
* C-x r opush text to fill rectangle with spaces (open)
+
* {{Keys|C-x r o}} push text to fill rectangle with spaces (open)
* C-x r creplace rectangle text with spaces (clear)
+
* {{Keys|C-x r c}} replace rectangle text with spaces (clear)
* C-x r treplace each line in rectangle with text
+
* {{Keys|C-x r t}} replace each line in rectangle with text
  
 
== Registers ==
 
== Registers ==
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* view-registerview the contents of a register
 
* view-registerview the contents of a register
* C-x r SPC ''r''record current point position in register ''r''
+
* {{Keys|C-x r S}} PC ''r''record current point position in register ''r''
* C-x r j ''r''jump to position in register ''r''
+
* {{Keys|C-x r j}} ''r''jump to position in register ''r''
* C-x r s ''r''save region to register ''r''
+
* {{Keys|C-x r s}} ''r''save region to register ''r''
 
* C-u C-x r s ''r''kill region to register ''r''
 
* C-u C-x r s ''r''kill region to register ''r''
* C-x r i ''r''insert text from register ''r''
+
* {{Keys|C-x r i}} ''r''insert text from register ''r''
 
* append-to-registerappend region to register
 
* append-to-registerappend region to register
 
* prepend-to-registerprepend region to register
 
* prepend-to-registerprepend region to register
* C-x r r ''r''save rectangle into register ''r''
+
* {{Keys|C-x r r}} ''r''save rectangle into register ''r''
  
 
== Bookmarks ==
 
== Bookmarks ==
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Bookmarks are like registers but persistent. They can also be named.
 
Bookmarks are like registers but persistent. They can also be named.
  
* C-x r m ''foo''bookmark file and point to ''foo''
+
* {{Keys|C-x r m}} ''foo''bookmark file and point to ''foo''
* C-x r b ''foo''jump to bookmark called ''foo''
+
* {{Keys|C-x r b}} ''foo''jump to bookmark called ''foo''
* C-x r llist all bookmarks
+
* {{Keys|C-x r l}} list all bookmarks
 
* bookmark-savesave all bookmarks
 
* bookmark-savesave all bookmarks
 
* bookmark-deletedelete a bookmark
 
* bookmark-deletedelete a bookmark
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* F3start macro definition or insert counter
 
* F3start macro definition or insert counter
* C-x (start macro definition only
+
* {{Keys|C-x (}} start macro definition only
 
* F4end macro definition or call macro
 
* F4end macro definition or call macro
* C-x eend macro definition and call macro
+
* {{Keys|C-x e}} end macro definition and call macro
* C-x )end macro definition only
+
* {{Keys|C-x )}} end macro definition only
* C-u C-u F3append commands to last macro
+
* C-u C-u F3 append commands to last macro
* C-u F3re-run last macro then append commands to it
+
* {{Keys|C-u F3}} re-run last macro then append commands to it
* C-x C-k rrun macro on region
+
* {{Keys|C-x C-k r}} run macro on region
* C-x C-k C-nrotate to select the next macro in the ring
+
* {{Keys|C-x C-k C-n}} rotate to select the next macro in the ring
* C-x C-k C-protate to select the previous macro in the ring
+
* {{Keys|C-x C-k C-p}} rotate to select the previous macro in the ring
  
 
Every macro definition can have a counter to insert into the buffer.
 
Every macro definition can have a counter to insert into the buffer.
  
 
* F3inside a macro definition, inserts the counter
 
* F3inside a macro definition, inserts the counter
* C-x C-k C-ioutside a macro definition, inserts the counter
+
* {{Keys|C-x C-k C-i}} outside a macro definition, inserts the counter
* C-x C-k C-cset the macro counter value
+
* {{Keys|C-x C-k C-c}} set the macro counter value
* C-x C-k C-fset the macro counter format
+
* {{Keys|C-x C-k C-f}} set the macro counter format
  
 
Macros can be named and saved.
 
Macros can be named and saved.
  
* C-x C-k nname the most recently defined macro
+
* {{Keys|C-x C-k n}} name the most recently defined macro
* C-x C-k bkeybind the most recently defined macro
+
* {{Keys|C-x C-k b}} keybind the most recently defined macro
 
* insert-kbd-macroinsert macro into buffer as elisp code
 
* insert-kbd-macroinsert macro into buffer as elisp code
  
 
Notes:
 
Notes:
  
* It is best to use the reserved key bindings C-x C-k [a-zA-Z0-9] as to not cause problems with other bindings. C-x C-k b 4 will define C-x C-k 4 as a binding.
+
* It is best to use the reserved key bindings {{Keys|C-x C-k}} [a-zA-Z0-9] as to not cause problems with other bindings. {{Keys|C-x C-k}} b 4 will define {{Keys|C-x C-k}} 4 as a binding.
  
 
== Alignment ==
 
== Alignment ==
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* alignaligns depending on mode
 
* alignaligns depending on mode
 
* align-regexpaligns using a regular expression
 
* align-regexpaligns using a regular expression
* C-u align-regexpaligns using a regular expression helper
+
* {{Keys|C-u}} align-regexpaligns using a regular expression helper
 
* align-currentaligns current paragraph depending on mode
 
* align-currentaligns current paragraph depending on mode
  
 
== Sorting ==
 
== Sorting ==
  
When sorting, prefixing with C-u sorts in descending order.
+
When sorting, prefixing with {{Keys|C-u}} sorts in descending order.
  
 
* sort-linessort region by lines
 
* sort-linessort region by lines
 
* sort-paragraphssort region by paragraphs
 
* sort-paragraphssort region by paragraphs
* C-u ''n'' sort-fieldssort lines in region by <math>\textit{\underline{n}}^{th}</math> field
+
* {{Keys|C-u}} ''n'' sort-fieldssort lines in region by <math>\textit{\underline{n}}^{th}</math> field
* C-u -''n'' sort-fieldssort lines in region by <math>\textit{\underline{n}}^{th}</math> field from right
+
* {{Keys|C-u}} -''n'' sort-fieldssort lines in region by <math>\textit{\underline{n}}^{th}</math> field from right
 
* sort-numeric-fieldsinterpret field as number and not text
 
* sort-numeric-fieldsinterpret field as number and not text
 
* sort-columnssort by column specified by marked region
 
* sort-columnssort by column specified by marked region
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Cell merging/splitting:
 
Cell merging/splitting:
  
* C-c C-c *interactively merge two cells
+
* {{Keys|C-c C-c}} *interactively merge two cells
 
* C-split cell horizontally
 
* C-split cell horizontally
 
* C--split cell vertically
 
* C--split cell vertically
Line 404: Line 404:
  
 
* C-x TABforce an indentation on a region
 
* C-x TABforce an indentation on a region
* M-qindents and breaks paragraph into multiple lines
+
* {{Keys|M-q}} indents and breaks paragraph into multiple lines
* M-;comments a region or adds comment to line
+
* {{Keys|M-;}} comments a region or adds comment to line
* M-(inserts a new lisp function (parenthesis)
+
* {{Keys|M-(}} inserts a new lisp function (parenthesis)
* M-)checks balanced parenthesis and opens line
+
* {{Keys|M-)}} checks balanced parenthesis and opens line
* C-x iinserts file contents at point position
+
* {{Keys|C-x}} iinserts file contents at point position
* M-!run shell command
+
* {{Keys|M-!}} run shell command
 
* C-u M-!run shell command and insert output
 
* C-u M-!run shell command and insert output
 
* M-<math>|</math>run shell command on marked region
 
* M-<math>|</math>run shell command on marked region
Line 467: Line 467:
 
Emacs has a handy help system for quick lookup of various features, topics, functions and key bindings.
 
Emacs has a handy help system for quick lookup of various features, topics, functions and key bindings.
  
* C-h ?show the help system shortcuts
+
* {{Keys|C-h ?}} show the help system shortcuts
 
* C-h ''key''run help system with shortcut ''key''
 
* C-h ''key''run help system with shortcut ''key''
  
 
Some useful help keys:
 
Some useful help keys:
  
* C-h ashow apropos page about a keyword
+
* {{Keys|C-h a}} show apropos page about a keyword
* C-h k ''keybind''show help for function bound to ''keybind''
+
* {{Keys|C-h k}} ''keybind''show help for function bound to ''keybind''
* C-h bshow all key bindings
+
* {{Keys|C-h b}} show all key bindings
* C-h fshow documentation for function
+
* {{Keys|C-h f}} show documentation for function
* C-h mshow documentation for current modes
+
* {{Keys|C-h m}} show documentation for current modes
* C-h vshow documentation for variable
+
* {{Keys|C-h v}} show documentation for variable
* C-h wshow what keys a command is bound to
+
* {{Keys|C-h w}} show what keys a command is bound to
* C-h tstart the emacs tutorial
+
* {{Keys|C-h t}} start the emacs tutorial
 
* ''prefix'' C-hshow all key binds starting with ''prefix''
 
* ''prefix'' C-hshow all key binds starting with ''prefix''
  
Line 509: Line 509:
 
== Spell Checking ==
 
== Spell Checking ==
  
* M-$check spelling at word or active region
+
* {{Keys|M-$}} check spelling at word or active region
 
* ispellcheck active region or entire buffer
 
* ispellcheck active region or entire buffer
 
** iaccept word and insert into personal dictionary
 
** iaccept word and insert into personal dictionary

Revision as of 09:10, 6 April 2012

This reference-like tutorial is aimed at Emacs beginners and probably others too. If you know how to do some basic editing and navigation in Emacs and want to quickly go through more of its capabilities, then this tutorial is for you. If you are looking for the semantics or key-bindings of a specific feature, this tutorial aims to be for you since it is a subset of the online Emacs documentation. If you are giving an introductory presentation about Emacs, this tutorial might help you.

The repository for the contents of this tutorial can be found here: https://github.com/fredmorcos/emacs-reference

Description and History

  • Emacs is an extensible, customizable, self-documenting, real-time display text editor.
  • Originally, a set of editing macros for the TECO editor.
  • GNU Emacs was developed by R. Stallman and G. Steele.
  • Technically, GNU Emacs is an elisp interpreter with text editing extensions.
  • GNU Emacs contains thousands of commands and allows the user to combine them into elisp procedures (called macros) to automate work.
  • Commands are, themselves, elisp procedures and the GNU Emacs configuration init file is an elisp program.

Technical Description

Extensible 
The user can define, un-define and redefine commands as well as re-use available commands into macros.
Customizable 
The user can change properties of emacs elements including the key-bindings and the display.
Self-documenting 
All defined commands and macros get automatic preliminary documentation (bound keys and parameters).

Why Emacs?

  • Easily programmable
  • Kill ring
  • Rectangular editing
  • Registers
  • Command repetition
  • Macros and Lisp procedures
  • Modes
  • Init file
  • Remote files
  • Shell, Terminal Emulator, IRC, Email, News, File Manager, Process Manager, Project Manager, Tetris, Doctor and many others.

Terminology and Structure

Buffer 
A container for data (text, completions)
Point 
The current position in the buffer (cursor)
Window 
A visual container for a buffer
Frame 
A visual container for one or more windows
Kill 
The equivalent of cutting
Yank 
The equivalent of copying
Kill Ring 
A circular clipboard (very handy)
Mark 
The coordinates of a selection
Region 
The text inside a mark
Modeline 
A status line
Minibuffer 
A small buffer for commands and arguments
Mode 
The current type of data being edited

Modeline

The Modeline is used to report different pieces of information.

-cs:ch-fr  buf      pos line   (major minor)-----
cs 
Character set (or coding system)
Newline mode
ch 
File modification status
- or @ 
File is local or remote
fr 
Frame name on text terminals
buf 
Buffer/file name
pos 
Point/cursor position
line 
Current line and column number
modes (major minor) 
Currently loaded major and minor modes

Keybind Terms and Minibuffer

Emacs has some different naming of command/control keys (probably coming from the old days).

Meta key, Alt or ESC
Control key
Shift key
[M-a] 
Press a while holding the meta key
[C-M-a] 
Press a while holding the control and meta keys
[C-a b] 
Press a while holding the control key then press b
[C-a C-b] 
Press a and b both while holding the control key
[C-a M-b] 
Press a with control then b with meta

The Minibuffer is used to input commands, arguments and setting different modes (which some of are bound to keys or menu actions).

[M-x] 
Execute a command by name

Basic Usage

Loading

$ emacs # opens Emacs at the scratch buffer
$ emacs [file1] [file2] ... # opens Emacs in split-window mode
[C-x C-f] filename 
loads a new buffer from filename

Saving

[C-x C-s] 
saves the current buffer
[C-x C-w] filename 
saves the current buffer as filename

Other

[C-x C-c] 
quits emacs
[C-g C-g] 
cancels key-sequence

Windows

Windows are used to display buffer contents. Windows can be split and resized inside an Emacs frame. The minibuffer has its own window.

  • [C-x 2] : open a window vertically
  • [C-x 3] : open a window horizontally
  • [C-x 0] : close the current window
  • [C-x 1] : close all other windows
  • ESC ESC ESC : close all other windows
  • [C-x o] : move to another window
  • [C-x ^] : increase window size vertically
  • [C-x ]} : increase window size horizontally
  • [C-x {] : decrease window size horizontally
  • C-x Failed to parse(Missing texvc executable; please see math/README to configure.): -
: shrink window to buffer size
  • C-x Failed to parse(Missing texvc executable; please see math/README to configure.): +
: make all windows equal in size

Navigation & Movement

Word

  • C-Failed to parse(Missing texvc executable; please see math/README to configure.): \shortleftarrow
: moves one word backwards
  • C-Failed to parse(Missing texvc executable; please see math/README to configure.): \shortrightarrow
: moves one word forward

Line

  • [C-a] : goes to beginning of the line (Home)
  • [C-e] : goes to end of the line (End)
  • [M-a] : goes to beginning of the sentence
  • [M-e] : goes to end of the sentence
  • [M-g g] : goes to given line by number

Paragraph

  • C-Failed to parse(Missing texvc executable; please see math/README to configure.): \shortuparrow
: moves up one paragraph
  • C-Failed to parse(Missing texvc executable; please see math/README to configure.): \shortdownarrow
: moves down one paragraph

Buffer

  • [C-x [] : moves to the beginning of the buffer
  • [C-x ]] : moves to the end of the buffer
  • C-l : moves the buffer to position point
  • [C-x b] : switches to another buffer by name
  • C-x : switches to previous or next buffer
  • [C-x k] : kills the current buffer

Editing

Character

  • [C-d] : deletes next character
  • [C-t] : transposes current character with previous one
  • C-q TAB : inserts a TAB verbatim

Word

  • [M-d] : kills the next word
  • [M-- M-d] : kills to the previous word
  • [M-/] : expands current word
  • M-/ SPC M-/expands current word and grabs next one
  • [M-C-/] : completes current word
  • [M-t] : transposes current word with next one
  • [M-- M-t] : transposes current word with previous one
  • [M-c] : capitalizes next word
  • [M-- M-c] : capitalizes previous word
  • [M-l] : lowercase next word
  • [M-- M-l] : lowercase previous word
  • [M-u] : uppercase next word
  • [M-- M-u] uppercase previous word

Line

  • [M-o M-s] : center a line
  • C-S-BACKSPC : kills current line
  • [C-k] : kills from point to EOL
  • [M-u C-k] : kills to the previous line
  • [C-a C-k] : goes to BOL then kills to EOL
  • TAB : indents line depending on current mode
  • [C-o] : breaks line before/after point
  • [C-x C-t] : transpose current line with previous one
  • [M-0 C-x] C-t : transpose current line with one at mark
  • delete-matching-lines : delete lines matching a regexp

Prefix Arguments & Command Repetition

Passing numerical arguments to commands can alter their behavior (e.g., repetition or inversion). Passing an argument can be done before M-x or key bindings.

  • M-n comrun com with prefix arg n
  • [M--] comrun com with negative prefix arg
  • [C-u] n comrun com with prefix arg n
  • [C-u] comrun com with prefix arg 4
  • [C-u C-u] comrun com with prefix arg 8
  • [C-u] also terminates the prefix argument
  • C-x [z]+repeats the previous Failed to parse(Missing texvc executable; please see math/README to configure.): z^{th}
command with args
  • C-x ESC ESCrepeats last command that uses the minibuffer

Examples:

  • C-u 5 0 C-kwill kill 50 lines
  • C-u 5 C-u 0will insert 5 zeros

Search & Replace

Incremental search

  • [C-s] Failed to parse(Missing texvc executable; please see math/README to configure.): keyword

search forward

  • [C-r] Failed to parse(Missing texvc executable; please see math/README to configure.): keyword

search backward

Non-incremental search

  • C-s RET Failed to parse(Missing texvc executable; please see math/README to configure.): keyword

search forward

  • C-r RET Failed to parse(Missing texvc executable; please see math/README to configure.): keyword

search backward

Regular Expression Search

  • [C-M-s] Failed to parse(Missing texvc executable; please see math/README to configure.): expression

search regexp forward

  • [C-M-r] Failed to parse(Missing texvc executable; please see math/README to configure.): expression

search regexp backward

Notes:

  • ESC will cancel and go to original point. RET will end at the current point.
  • Searches are case-insensitive unless an uppercase letter is found in the search string.
  • While searching, [C-w] will increment the search term with the current word.

Unconditional Replace

  • replace-stringreplaces a string with another
  • replace-regexpreplaces a regexp match with a string

Query Replace (Conditional Replace)

  • [M-%] conditional replace of a string
  • query-replace-regexpconditional replace of a regexp

Notes:

  • Replaces are case-insensitive unless an uppercase letter is found in the match string.
  • Replaces work from position to end of buffer unless a mark is active.
  • After a replace, the position will be at the end of the last match. C-u C-SPC to go back to the position before the replace started.
  • During a query replace, SPC will apply a replace and DEL will skip.

Undo & Redo

In Emacs, there is no special redo function. Instead, there is only an undo function and redo can be achieved by undo-ing an undo.

  • [C-/] undo a single change
  • [C-g] break the chain of undos

Notes:

  • If a mark is active, undo will only affect the marked region.

Regions

Emacs uses the mark and point to denote a region (i.e., a selection).

  • C-SPC creates a region (marks area)
  • [C-x C-x] swaps mark and point in a region
  • [C-u C-x C-x] swaps mark and point without region
  • [C-x h] marks the entire document
  • [M-h] marks the paragraph around
  • TABindents the current region
  • [M-@] incrementally mark next word

Kill, Yank and Paste Regions

  • [C-w] kills the currently selected region
  • [M-w] copies the currently selected region
  • [C-y] ([M-y])*yanks and cycles from the kill ring

Notes:

  • Yank is the copy command in vi and the paste command in emacs.

Rectangles

Rectangles are marked regions between the columns of the point and mark. Applying operations on rectangles is some sort of vertical editing.

  • [C-x r k] kill the rectangle
  • [C-x r d] delete the rectangle
  • [C-x r y] yank the last killed rectangle
  • [C-x r o] push text to fill rectangle with spaces (open)
  • [C-x r c] replace rectangle text with spaces (clear)
  • [C-x r t] replace each line in rectangle with text

Registers

Registers are places where you can store anything: text, position, rectangle, configuration, filename, ... Registers are named: a, A and 3 are three different registers.

  • view-registerview the contents of a register
  • [C-x r S] PC rrecord current point position in register r
  • [C-x r j] rjump to position in register r
  • [C-x r s] rsave region to register r
  • C-u C-x r s rkill region to register r
  • [C-x r i] rinsert text from register r
  • append-to-registerappend region to register
  • prepend-to-registerprepend region to register
  • [C-x r r] rsave rectangle into register r

Bookmarks

Bookmarks are like registers but persistent. They can also be named.

  • [C-x r m] foobookmark file and point to foo
  • [C-x r b] foojump to bookmark called foo
  • [C-x r l] list all bookmarks
  • bookmark-savesave all bookmarks
  • bookmark-deletedelete a bookmark

Macros

Macros are user defined commands using the Emacs command language. A user can “record” and “replay” a macro, useful for simple repeatable tasks. More complex tasks (e.g., conditions, loops) must be implemented in elisp. Macros are recorded in a macro ring.

  • F3start macro definition or insert counter
  • [C-x (] start macro definition only
  • F4end macro definition or call macro
  • [C-x e] end macro definition and call macro
  • [C-x )] end macro definition only
  • C-u C-u F3 append commands to last macro
  • [C-u F3] re-run last macro then append commands to it
  • [C-x C-k r] run macro on region
  • [C-x C-k C-n] rotate to select the next macro in the ring
  • [C-x C-k C-p] rotate to select the previous macro in the ring

Every macro definition can have a counter to insert into the buffer.

  • F3inside a macro definition, inserts the counter
  • [C-x C-k C-i] outside a macro definition, inserts the counter
  • [C-x C-k C-c] set the macro counter value
  • [C-x C-k C-f] set the macro counter format

Macros can be named and saved.

  • [C-x C-k n] name the most recently defined macro
  • [C-x C-k b] keybind the most recently defined macro
  • insert-kbd-macroinsert macro into buffer as elisp code

Notes:

  • It is best to use the reserved key bindings [C-x C-k] [a-zA-Z0-9] as to not cause problems with other bindings. [C-x C-k] b 4 will define [C-x C-k] 4 as a binding.

Alignment

Emacs contains alignment commands. Sometimes those depend on the current mode (i.e., the language).

  • alignaligns depending on mode
  • align-regexpaligns using a regular expression
  • [C-u] align-regexpaligns using a regular expression helper
  • align-currentaligns current paragraph depending on mode

Sorting

When sorting, prefixing with [C-u] sorts in descending order.

  • sort-linessort region by lines
  • sort-paragraphssort region by paragraphs
  • [C-u] n sort-fieldssort lines in region by Failed to parse(Missing texvc executable; please see math/README to configure.): \textit{\underline{n}}^{th}
field
  • [C-u] -n sort-fieldssort lines in region by Failed to parse(Missing texvc executable; please see math/README to configure.): \textit{\underline{n}}^{th}
field from right
  • sort-numeric-fieldsinterpret field as number and not text
  • sort-columnssort by column specified by marked region
  • reverse-regionreverses current region

Tables

Emacs has support for creating and editing text-based tables by keeping track of their properties (e.g., position, size) in the buffer. When a buffer is saved to file, those properties are lost.

  • table-insertinteractively insert a table into buffer
  • table-recognizedetect properties of all tables in the buffer
  • table-unrecognizeremove special table properties
  • table-recognize-regiondetect properties of tables in region
  • table-unrecognize-regionforget properties of tables in region
  • table-recognize-tabledetect properties of table at point
  • table-unrecognize-tableremove properties of table at point

Cell resizing:

  • C-u n C-widen cell at point by n characters
  • C-u n C-narrow cell at point by n characters
  • C-u n C-}heighten cell at point by n lines
  • C-u n C-{shorten cell at point by n lines

Cell movement:

  • TABmove to cell on right
  • S-TABmove to cell on left

Cell merging/splitting:

  • [C-c C-c] *interactively merge two cells
  • C-split cell horizontally
  • C--split cell vertically

Rows & Columns:

  • C-u n table-insert-rowinsert n rows
  • C-u n table-delete-rowdelete n rows
  • C-u n table-insert-columninsert n columns
  • C-u n table-delete-columndelete n columns

Other:

  • C-:interactively justify cell, column or row text
  • C-!toggle table fixed width mode
  • table-generate-sourcetable code in Latex, HTML or Cals

Goodies

  • C-x TABforce an indentation on a region
  • [M-q] indents and breaks paragraph into multiple lines
  • [M-;] comments a region or adds comment to line
  • [M-(] inserts a new lisp function (parenthesis)
  • [M-)] checks balanced parenthesis and opens line
  • [C-x] iinserts file contents at point position
  • [M-!] run shell command
  • C-u M-!run shell command and insert output
  • M-Failed to parse(Missing texvc executable; please see math/README to configure.): |

run shell command on marked region

  • C-u M-Failed to parse(Missing texvc executable; please see math/README to configure.): |

run shell command on and replace marked region

  • insert-bufferinserts buffer contents at point position
  • copy-to-buffercopy region content to a buffer
  • kill-some-buffersinteractively kill buffers
  • electric-buffer-listinteractive buffer list
  • toggle-truncate-linesdo not split lines over visual lines
  • visual-line-modesplit lines by words
  • viper-modevi compatibility

Setting Key Bindings

Emacs has a global keymap which maps between keys and commands. Each major mode can define, redefine or undefine its own key bindings, creating a local keymap (e.g., c-mode). Each minor mode can do so too (e.g., flymake). Each portion of text can also do so (e.g., tables).

Description of some prefix keys:

  • C-xcommand prefix key
  • M-command prefix key
  • C-cmode specific prefix key
  • C-hhelp prefix key

Commands to bind keys:

  • global-set-key k combind key k to com globally
  • local-set-key k combind key k to com locally (major mode)

Notes:

  • Menu and mouse key bindings can also be set.

Storing Key Bindings

In the Emacs init file, you can either set global key bindings or “hook” local key bindings to mode hooks (i.e., callbacks, slots).

  • global-set-keyadds a binding to the global map
  • local-set-keyadds a binding to the local (major mode) map
  • kbdconverts a string to a key sequence

Examples:

Global key binding:

  • (global-set-key (kbd "C-c d") ’duplicate-line)
  • (global-set-key (kbd "C-c d") (kbd "C-a C-@ C-e M-w RET C-y"))
  • (global-set-key (kbd "C-c d") "\C-a\C- \C-n\M-w\C-y")

Local key binding:

  • (add-hook ’LaTeX-mode-hook

    (lambda () (local-set-key (kbd "C-c n")
                              ’forward-paragraph)))

The Emacs Help System

Emacs has a handy help system for quick lookup of various features, topics, functions and key bindings.

  • [C-h ?] show the help system shortcuts
  • C-h keyrun help system with shortcut key

Some useful help keys:

  • [C-h a] show apropos page about a keyword
  • [C-h k] keybindshow help for function bound to keybind
  • [C-h b] show all key bindings
  • [C-h f] show documentation for function
  • [C-h m] show documentation for current modes
  • [C-h v] show documentation for variable
  • [C-h w] show what keys a command is bound to
  • [C-h t] start the emacs tutorial
  • prefix C-hshow all key binds starting with prefix

Modes

Modes are used to define the types of data being edited in buffers, or what Emacs calls “the language”.

Every buffer has exactly one major mode which defines its language (C, Java, English, IRC, ...) and provides basic elements like syntax highlighting and (re)defines functions and their key bindings for relevant actions (e.g., comments).

Each buffer can have zero or more minor modes enabled which provide non-specific functionality such as spell checking or line wrapping (i.e., mode independent).

ediff

ediff (emacs-diff) is a mode for Emacs where you can view and merge difference between two or three buffers.

  • ediffselect files to view their differences
  • ediff-buffersselect buffers to view their differences

In ediff-mode:

  • switch between horizontal/vertical view
  •  ?view ediff help
  • pview previous difference
  • nview next difference
  • aset buffer b’s area to what’s in a’s
  • bset buffer a’s area to what’s in b’s
  • qquit ediff session

Spell Checking

  • [M-$] check spelling at word or active region
  • ispellcheck active region or entire buffer
    • iaccept word and insert into personal dictionary
    •  ?show ispell help
    • RETend current ispell session
  • ESC TABcomplete current word from dictionary
  • flyspell-modeenable “on the fly” spell checking
  • flyspell-prog-modespell check comments and strings

References