- 1 Default modes
- 2 All-in-one solutions
- 3 Refactoring
- 4 Auto-Completion
- 5 Code Checker
- 6 Indexing sources: ctags, cscope, pycscope
- 7 Debugging
- 8 Other tools
- 9 See also
There are a number of python modes for Emacs. fgallina's python.el is the python.el included in Emacs 24.2 and onwards.
emacs-for-python is a bundle of the above modes (and more), and it's an easy way to turn Emacs into a Python IDE.
Elpy is a collection of elisp packages for Python too.
rope & ropemacs
rope is a library for refactoring and manipulating Python code, pymacs is an interface between emacs lisp and python, and ropemacs is an Emacs interface to the rope library which uses rope and pymacs.
If you do some search and replace of code objects in your code and find it sometimes tricky, and/or you need to do it in more than one file, then you should consider a good tool of refactoring.
But Rope can do more than this simple example, it can:
- Rename anything
- Extract method/local variable
- Change method signature
- Perform cross-project refactorings
- Support Mercurial, GIT, Darcs and SVN in refactorings
Rope can also help IDE's with:
- Finding definition location
- Getting pydoc
- Finding occurrences
- Organizing imports (removing unused and duplicate imports and sorting them)
- Generating python elements
You need to install rope with:
aptitude install python-rope
pip install rope
and then install ropemacs and pymacs (on ELPA).
Jedi.el is a Python auto-completion package for Emacs. It aims at helping your Python coding in a non-destructive way. It also helps you to find information about Python objects, such as docstring, function arguments and code location.
Jedi is simple to install and it works out of the box.
See screenshots and get the full documentation : http://tkf.github.io/emacs-jedi/released/
Jedi's official page: http://jedi.jedidjah.ch/en/latest/
Install Jedi.el via el-get, Marmalade or MELPA (see install for more info) and add this to your Emacs configuration:
(add-hook 'python-mode-hook 'jedi:setup) (setq jedi:setup-keys t) ; optional (setq jedi:complete-on-dot t) ; optional
or call M-x jedi:setup
Note: it's nice to use it in a python interpreter inside emacs :)
Anaconda-mode is a mode for code navigation, documentation lookup and completion for Python.
It runs on emacs 24.3 with python >= 2.6.
- context-sensitive code completion for Python
- jump to definition
- find references
- view documentation
- virtualenv management
To run pep8, pylint, pyflakes and unit-tests (with nose), you can be interested in using flymake-python.
Don't forget about pylint too.
Indexing sources allows you to do neat things, like going to the definition of a function or finding which functions are calling another one.
Etags (Exuberant Ctags) generates an index (or tag) file of language objects found in source files that allows these items to be quickly and easily located by a text editor or other utility. A tag signifies a language object for which an index entry is available (or, alternatively, the index entry created for that object). Etags is a multilingual implementation of ctags.
The primary use for the tags files is looking up class/method/function/constant/etc declaration/definitions. Cscope is more powerful (see below).
Generate the tags with this command at the root of your project:
find . -name "*.py" -print | etags -
it creates the file TAGS.
cscope is a much more powerful beast. While it operates on more or less the same principle (generating a file of useful metadata) it allows you do some fancier things like find all references to a symbol, see where a function is being invoked, etc.+ (you can find definitions as well).
It was originally designed for C and C++, but thanks to version 0.3 of pycscope, pythonistas can make use of it.
The following commands should get you running:
apt-get install cscope pip install pycscope # in project base dir: find . -name '*.py' > cscope.files cscope -R
now install the xcscope emacs package with ELPA and require it:
When done, you can either enable the mode with cscope-minor-mode (which will add a menu you are free to explore) or call some functions like M-x cscope-find-global-definition, M-x cscope-find-functions-calling-this-function, etc.
Interactivity with helm-cscope
You can do all that interactively with helm-cscope: when you are on symbol, just call M-x helm-cscope-find-global-definition (for example) and enjoy the nice interactive interface.
Ipdb, ipython debugger
If you call ipdb, the execution will stop and give a nice ipython-looking prompt. Just add `import ipdb; ipdb.set_trace()`
You can use the following to highlight this line, and not forget it :
; Highlight the call to ipdb ; src http://pedrokroger.com/2010/07/configuring-emacs-as-a-python-ide-2/ (defun annotate-pdb () (interactive) (highlight-lines-matching-regexp "import ipdb") (highlight-lines-matching-regexp "ipdb.set_trace()")) (add-hook 'python-mode-hook 'annotate-pdb)
If you use emacs-for-python given above, you can track your source code while debugging with pdbtrack.
A tool to use in a non-emacs terminal would be pdbpp
Pymacs is an Emacs extension that enables the use of Python alongside with Emacs Lisp.
Auto include import statements
Ropemacs (see above) is a plugin for performing python refactorings in emacs. It uses rope library and pymacs. It has rope-auto-import, so if you write
and then execute M-x rope-auto-import,
from shutil import rmtree
is inserted at the top of the file.
Unfortunately Ropemacs can not do non-relative imports, it can only create imports of the "from X import Y" variety (if you type shutil.rmtree it doesn't write import shutil).
Sort import statements
See the py-isort Melpa package to automatically sort import statements.
You'll be certainly interested in the following packages (that you will find on ELPA or MELPA):
- Magit, a git interface. Emacs + git is magic : see magit
- Yasnippet, a template system: yasnippet
- virtualenvwrapper, to load a virtualenv (so than you can use it with M-x compile) (available through ELPA)
- helm-pydoc to browse the documentation of installed packages and import one
- py-isort to sort import statements
- pungi to integrate jedi, virtualenv and buildout.
- other ELPA packages
If you're running Emacs 24, check out what is available in ELPA:
- M-x list-packages
- and see flymake-pyhon-pyflakes, flymake-shell, abl-mode (a python TDD minor-mode), nose (easy python test-running in emacs), pyregexp, python-magic and more.